2012年8月1日

外媒谈奥运两篇:民族主义和举国体制



(中国网民为叶诗文辩护)中国对围绕16岁游泳选手叶诗文的争议作出愤怒回应。在上周六的奥运会游泳项目比赛中,叶诗文打破世界纪录的超常表现令世人惊讶。

对叶诗文可能使用了兴奋剂的怀疑,在民族自豪感受到挫伤的中国网民中引发众怒。

周二下午,有关叶诗文受到服用兴奋剂指控的消息,成为中国领先微博网站新浪微博(Sina Weibo)上最热门的话题之一,引发了100多万条评论。

“西方媒体攻击叶诗文的唯一动机是因为她是中国人!”一名取名AC Lao Shen的博客作者在新浪微博上写道。

新浪微博上的许多帖子,令人想起北京奥运会之前中国年轻人爆发的民族主义情绪。当时奥运火炬在海外传递途中遭遇抗议和对中国的批评,理由是中国人权记录糟糕。

这些帖子提醒世人,尽管中国政府在伦敦奥运会之前呼吁保持谦虚谨慎,但中国举国上下仍然非常看重赢得比赛,把奥运会看成几件事的重大场合,包括中国继续崛起成为全球大国,改善中国的国际形象,以及洗刷共产党宣传机器所称的中国在西方列强手中遭受的一个多世纪的耻辱。

“那是西方媒体对中国成功的真实态度,典型的酸葡萄!”Nanxi Yujiao写道。

“不要以为只有西方国家才能赢得金牌!”取名DC的博客作者表示。

许多中国人(尤其是年轻人)抱怨称,外界没有给予中国应得的尊重。应该承认的是,他们自己也可能对共产党统治下的腐败、缺乏民主和环境退化抱有深切的怀疑。但是,对于在民族主义宣传下长大的许多中国人来说,中国负面形象的严重程度让他们震惊。在海外的中国学生和游客往往觉得,他们国家在西方被妖魔化和误解了。

国际奥运会(IOC)发言人马克亚当斯(Mark Adams)周二在伦敦表示:“我们都需要现实一点。这些是世界上最优秀的运动员在进行最高水平的比赛。大家知道,在决赛中获得前五名的运动员必须接受药检,此外还要抽查两人。因此,我们有一套极为强大的检测计划,我们有信心认为,如果有人作假,我们将抓住他们。”

英国奥委会主席莫伊尼汉勋爵(Lord Moynihan)则更加明确地支持叶诗文这名年轻的中国游泳选手,他谴责了媒体的猜测。

莫伊尼汉周二在新闻会上表示:“她通过了WADA(世界反兴奋剂机构)的药检,因此这件事应该有了定论。让我们承认这名游泳选手,叶诗文,她值得肯定。”

他补充说:“报上有那么多猜测是令人遗憾的。我不喜欢这种做法。我认为这是不对的。”

来源:FT中文网

(英媒:中国体育培训太残酷 再多金牌也不值)星期三(8月1日)的英国各大报纸继续关注中国女子游泳小将叶诗文的消息。

《泰晤士报》发表一篇署名评论文章,从中国运动员的表现看中国近乎残忍的训练体制。

文章的作者表示,人们应该同情叶诗文以及数不清的“身心被粉碎的”中国运动员。

文章说,首先叶诗文是一个只有16岁的青少年,在她打破400米女子混合泳世界纪录后就受到媒体的怀疑,同时中国游泳队在80、90年代曾使用违禁药类提高运动员竞技成绩的丑闻也被挖了出来。

中国官员被指在90年代“鼓励”运动员服用能够提高竞技水平的违禁药品。

文章说, 这仅仅是中国体育制度的一方面,而另一方面中国培养和训练运动员的方法更是令西方记者觉得“不人道”。

残酷训练

文章说,2005年西方的记者就见证了中国年轻的男体操运动员被教练打,女运动员被推到身体的极限泪流满面的训练场面。这一切都令他们感到震惊。

那些表现突出的运动员被国家队选走,送到北京国家体育训练中心接受超强度的训练。如果哪位运动员承受不了的话,马上会被淘汰,候补的人大有人在。

西方记者亲眼见证一名羽毛球运动员由于超强度的训练而当场晕倒,但苏醒后立即被教练命令继续投入比赛。

文章继续说,几年前中国的体育训练方式有所转变,更加人性化,但是现在似乎又回到了过去的那种老式“残酷”的训练方法。

文章说,中国的年轻运动员成为了国家体育试验的一个棋子。一些西方人士认为这种竞争方式不公平。

他们不仅担心运动员使用违禁药品的问题,还担心年轻的运动员接受超大强度的体能训练超过了人体的承受范围之内。

牺牲个人

一名英国教练曾表示,中国的体育制度把孩子当成机器一样训练,西方的培训方法如何能比得过?

文章作者说,中国为了国家的利益可以牺牲个人。集权制度似乎在体育上得到了充分的发挥。

文章说,虽然中国可以培养出像叶诗文这样的奥运选手,但是不要忘了还有无数个未能经受起严格训练而被淘汰的运动员,他们的身心都被中国的体育制度给粉碎了。我们不要忘了,他们的人生同等重要。

文章最后说,中国即使是赢得了1000枚金牌都不值得如此代价的培训。

中国希望利用运动员在国际舞台所取得的成功来展示其政权的胜利,正像过去前苏联和东德所展示的那样。然而,精英体育的成功不能说明政治文化的美德,它却往往显示了一种不自信和道德缺陷。

来源:BBC


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